Article IV (4) of the Constitution of the Nation of Pacifica

Legislative Branch

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Article IV (4) of the Constitution of the Nation of Pacifica

Legislature

    Commmentary: Article IV (4) establishes the legislative branch of government. Three equal branches of government serve as a check and balance on power. Congress is divided into two houses, the House of Representatives and the Senate.

    The House of Representatives has short terms (two years) and term limits to encourage responsiveness to changes in public mood. 500 members are directly elected by popular vote in districts proportional to actual population; an additional 301 members are allocated at large nationally on the basis of each party’s popular vote; the 100 members of the highest level Council of 100; and the members of the Council of Peoples. Membership in the House of Representatives is proportional to actual population. All taxation, budget, and monetary bills must initiate in the House of Representatives.

    The Senate has long terms and no term limits to encourage thoughtful deliberation. In addition to two directly elected Senators from each state, along with the executive authority (usually a governor) from each state, the members of the Supreme Court, the current President, Vice President, and elected Chancellors, and lifetime membership for former Presidents and Chief Justices of the Supreme Court and other leading citizens.

    [Documment Quotations:] Quoations in light gray from source documents are for reference only annd are not part of the Constitution of the Nation of Pacifica.

    This Constitution is a work in progress. To make comments, send e-mail to contact00@nationofpacifica.com.

Article IV (4): Legislative

Section 1. [Congress]

    All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 1:] All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2. [House of Representatives]

    Clause 1: The House of Representatives shall be composed of District Representatives, Party Representatives, the highest Council of 100, and representatives from the nations.

    Clause 2: The House of Representatives shall be composed of District Representatives chosen every second year by the people of the several states.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 2, Clause 1:] The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

    Clause 3: No person shall be a District Representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and have been seven years a citizen of Pacifica or a state admitted into the Nation of Pacifica, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that state in which he or she shall be chosen. No person may be elected to the office of District Representative more than five consecutive terms.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 2, Clause 2:] No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

    Clause 4: Five hundred (500) District Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state. The actual enumeration shall be made within ten years after the first meeting of the Congress of Pacifica, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as Congress shall by law direct. Each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of California shall be entitled to choose fifty-three, Oregon six, Washington nine, Idaho two, British Columbia six, Alaska one, and Hawaii two.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 2, Clause 3:] Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. [Amendment XIV, Section 2, changed mode of apportionment of representatives and Amendment XVI changed no taxes on income.]

    Clause 5: Three hundred and one (301) Party Representatives shall be allocated at large nationally on the basis of each political party’s popular vote chosen every second year by the people.

    Clause 6: The members of the the highest Council of 100 will serve as members of the House of Representatives while serving in the highest Council of 100.

    Clause 7: The representatives of nations, membership alotted to the Native American nations as chosen by their respective memberships, will serve as members of the House of Representatives while serving in the Council of Peoples.

    Clause 8: When vacancies happen in the Representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 2, Clause 4:] When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

    Clause 9: The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of Impeachment.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 2, Clause 5:] The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XIV, Section 2:] Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XVI:] The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

Section 3. [Senate]

    Clause 1: The Senate shall consist of two directly elected Senators from each state, the highest executive authority of each state, the elected officers of the executive, the members of the Supreme Court, and additional lifetime Senators as provided below. Each of these Senators shall have one vote.

    Clause 2: The Senate of Pacifica shall include two Senators from each state, elected by the People thereof, for six years.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 3, Clause 1:] The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote. [Amendment XVII, Clause 1, changed to direct election of Senators.]

    Clause 3: Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, the Senators from each state and the Senators at large shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year.

    Clause 4: When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 3, Clause 2:] Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. [Amendment XVII, Clause 2, changed method of filling vacnacies.]<

    Clause 7: The highest executive authority of each state shall be a Senator for the term of office in the state. The states shall provide for vacancies.

    Clause 8: The members of the Supreme Court of Pacifica, including the Chief Justice, shall be a Senator.

    Clause 9: The President, Vice President, and Chancellors of Pacifica shall be Senators for the term of executive office. Elected Chancellors shall chair the Senate committees corresponding with their executive portfolio.

    Clause 10: Former Presidents of Pacifica and former Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of Pacifica shall be Senators for life.

    Clause 11: Any person, citizen or non-citizen, can be named Senator for life for great service to the public after being nominated by a two thirds majority of the Senate and ratified by majority vote by the people of Pacifica.

    Clause 12: No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the Nation of Pacifica or a state admitted into the nation of Pacifica, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 3, Clause 3:] No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

    Clause 13: The Senate shall choose their officers, and also a Premier, who shall be the President of the Senate.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 3, Clause 4:] The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 3, Clause 5:] The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United States.

    Clause 14: The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of Pacifica is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

    Clause 15: Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the Nnation of Pacifica: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 3, Clause 6:] The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 3, Clause 7:] Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XVII, Clause 1:] The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislatures.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XVII, Clause 2:] When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XVII, Clause 3:] This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

Section 4. [elections and meeting]

    Clause 1: The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 4, Clause 1:] The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing Senators.

    Clause 2: The terms of Senators and Representatives shall end at noon on the third day of January, and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 4, Clause 2:] The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. [Amendment XX, changed the date of the mandatory annual meeting.]

    Clause 3: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the third day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XX, Section 2:] The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XX, Section 1:] The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XX, Section 2:] The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XX, Section 3:] If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XX, Section 4:] The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XX, Section 5:] Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XX, Section 6:] This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission.

Section 5. [rules]

    Clause 1: Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 5, Clause 1:] Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

    Clause 2: Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 5, Clause 2:] Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

    Clause 3: Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 5, Clause 3:] Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.

    Clause 4: Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 5, Clause 4:] Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6. [compensation and privileges]

    Clause 1: The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the Nation of Pacifica.

    Clause 2: No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

    Clause 3: The Senators and Representatives shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 6, Clause 1:] The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. (See Note 6) They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. [Amendment XIVII changed timing of changes in compensation.]

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 6, Clause 2:] No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

    Clause 4: No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XXVII:] No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Section 7. [bills and laws]

    Clause 1: All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other bills.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 7, Clause 1:] All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

    Clause 2: Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the Nation of Pacifica; If he or she approve he or she shall sign it, but if not he or she shall return it, with his or her objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days after it shall have been presented to him or her, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he or she had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 7, Clause 2:] Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

    Clause 3: All laws expire after seven years unless specifically extended for additional seven year periods by two thirds majority of the Senate or extended for additional seven year periods by Congress according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

    Clause 4: Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the Nation of Pacifica; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him or her, or being disapproved by him or her, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 7, Clause 3:] Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him,shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

    Clause 5: The Senate may change the title of any law by simple majority.

    Clause 6: Any executive regulation may be disapproved by two third vote of either House or simple majority of both Houses.

Section 8. [powers of Congress]

    Clause 1: The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the Nation of Pacifica; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the Nation of Pacifica;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 1:] The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

    Clause 2: To borrow money on the credit of the Nation of Pacifica;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 2:] To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

    Clause 3: To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 3:] To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

    Clause 4: To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the Nation of Pacifica;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 4:] To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

    Clause 5: To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 5:] To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

    Clause 6: To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the Nation of Pacifica;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 6:] To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

    Clause 7: To establish post offices and post roads;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 7:] To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

    Clause 8: To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8:] To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

    Clause 9: To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 9:] To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

    Clause 10: To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the Law of Nations;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 10:] To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

    Clause 11: To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 11:] To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

    Clause 12: To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 12:] To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

    Clause 13: To provide and maintain a navy, coastal guard, and lighthouses;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 13:] To provide and maintain a Navy;

    Clause 14: To provide and maintain an air force and space force;

    Clause 15: To make rules for the government and regulation of the land, naval, air, and space forces;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 14:] To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

    Clause 16: To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 15:] To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

    Clause 17: To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the Nation of Pacifica, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 16:] To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

    Clause 18: To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding 100 miles square) as may, by cession of Seattle, Washington, and surrounding areas as be accepted by Congress, become the seat of the government of the Nation of Pacifica, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings;

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 17:] To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, byCession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

    Clause 19: To create Uniform Codes of Criminal, Civil, and Business Law which will apply in all states except as specifically exempted by individual state legislatures; —And

    Clause 20: To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers vested by this Constitution in the government of Pacifica, or in any department or officer thereof.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 8, Clause 18:] To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9. [limitations on Congress]

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 1:] The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

    Clause 1: The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 2:] The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

    Clause 2: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 3:] No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

    Clause 3: No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on business incomes, including value added and sales taxes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 4:] No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. [Amendment XVI allowed taxes on income.]

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XVI:] The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

    Clause 4: No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 5:] No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

    Clause 5: No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 6:] No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

    Clause 6: No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 7:] No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

    Clause 7: No title of nobility shall be granted by the Nation of Pacifica: And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 8:] No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10. [limitations on states]

    Clause 1: No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. Preexisting titles of nobility, such as the royal family of the Nation of Hawaii, may continue.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 10, Clause 1:] No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

    Clause 2: No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the Treasury of the Nation of Pacifica; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 10, Clause 2:] No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

    Clause 3: No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 10, Clause 3:] No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

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