Article I (1) of the Constitution of the Nation of Pacifica

Rights and Freedom

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Article I (1) of the Constitution of the Nation of Pacifica

Basic Rights and Personal Freedom

    Commmentary: Article I (1) guarantees the rights and freedom of the people. Rights are placed first in the Constitution to emphasize their importance.

    [Documment Quotations:] Quoations in light gray from source documents are for reference only annd are not part of the Constitution of the Nation of Pacifica.

    This Constitution is a work in progress. To make comments, send e-mail to contact00@nationofpacifica.com.

Article I (1): Rights

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Preamble:] Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
    Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the commonpeople,
    Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
    Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
    Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
    Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
    Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
    Now, Therefore,
    THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
    proclaims
    THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

Section 0. [basics]

    Clause 1: All human beings are by nature born free and independent and equal in dignity and rights.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I:] All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

    Clause 2: All human beings have natural, essential, inalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, security and safety of person, possession of property, privacy, and pursuit of happiness and enlightenment.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 3:] Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

    Clause 3: The government of the Nation of Pacifica therefore acknowledges inviolable and inalienable human rights as the basis of every community, of peace, and of justice in the world.

    [Basic Law [Constitution] for the Federal Republic of Germany, Article I, Paragraph 2:] The German people therefore acknowledge inviolable and inalienable human rights as the basis of every community, of peace and of justice in the world.

    Clause 4: All political power is inherent in the people. Government is instituted for their equal protection and benefit, and they have the right to alter, reform, or abolish the same whenever they deem it necessary; and no special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted that may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the Congress or the people.

    Clause 5: To respect and protect the inviolable dignity of all humans is the duty of all government authority.

    [Basic Law [Constitution] for the Federal Republic of Germany, Article I, Paragraph 1:] The dignity of man is inviolable. To respect and protect it is the duty of all state authority.

    Clause 6: All human beings are entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Constitution, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 2:] Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

    Clause 7: The following basic rights bind the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary as directly enforceable law.

    [Basic Law [Constitution] for the Federal Republic of Germany, Article I, Paragraph 3:] The following basic rights bind the legislature, the executive and the judiciary as directly enforceable law.

Section 1. [freedom of expression]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I9:] Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

    Clause 2: Neither Congress nor any state shall make any law abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment I:] Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

    Clause 3: Everyone has the right to satirize public persons.

    Clause 4: The press may not be compelled to reveal its sources or unpoublished information.

Section 2. [freedom of thought and religion]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience, philosophy, and religion; this right includes freedom to change his or her religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his or her religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance.

    Clause 2: The undisturbed practice of religion is guaranteed. The courts have the power to exempt citizens from laws for reasons of conscience, faith, or creed.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I8:] Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

    Clause 3: Neither Congress nor any state shall make a law respecting an establishment of religion.

    Clause 4: No public money or property shall be appropriated for or applied to any religious worship, exercise, or instruction, or the support of any religious establishment: PROVIDED, HOWEVER, That this article shall not be so construed as to forbid the employment by the Nation of Pacifica or any state of a chaplain for such of the custodial, correctional, and mental institutions, or by a public hospital, health care facility, or hospice, or by the military, as in the discretion of Congress or a state legislature may seem justified.

    Clause 5: No religious qualification shall be required for any public office or employment.

    Clause 6: No person shall be incompetent as a witness or juror, in consequence of his or her opinion on matters of religion, nor be questioned in any court of justice touching his or her religious belief to affect the weight of his or her testimony.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment I:] Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Section 3. [freedom of assembly]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 20, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

    Clause 2: No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 20, Paragraph 2:] No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

    Clause 3: Neither Congress nor any state shall make any law abridging the right of the people peacefully to assemble.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment I:] Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Section 4. [right of personhood]

    Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 6:] Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Section 5. [right of self defense]

    Any necessary force may be used to protect from wrongful injury the person or property of oneself, or of a wife, husband, child, parent, or other relative, or member of one’s family, or of a ward, servant, master, or guest.

Section 6. [right to equal protection]

    Clause 1: All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Constitution and against any incitement to such discrimination.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 7:] All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

    Clause 2: No person may be denied the equal protection of the laws.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XIV, Section 1:] All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 7. [right to redress of grievances]

    Clause 1: The right of petition for the common good shall never be abridged.

    Clause 2: Neither Congress nor any state shall make any law abridging the right of the people to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment I:] Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Section 8. [right to effective remedy]

    Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the courts for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him or her by the Constitution or by law.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 8:] Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Section 9. [no human slavery]

    Clause 1: No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 4:] No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

    Clause 2: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the Nation of Pacifica, or any place subject to the Nation of Pacifica’s jurisdiction.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 1:] The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XIII, Section 1:] Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XIII, Section 2:] Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 10. [no torture]

    No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 5:] No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Section 11. [public safety]

    All persons have the right to be free from any violence, or intimidation by threat of violence, committed against their persons or property because of their sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, colour, language, religion, creed, political or other opinion, political affiliation, position in a labor dispute, previous condition of servitude, medical condition, disability, birth, ancestry, or ethnic origin.

Section 12. [search and seizure]

    Clause 1: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, posts, communications, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment IV:] The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

    Clause 2: No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his or her privacy, family, home, or correspondence, nor to arbitrary attacks upon his or her honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I2:] No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

    Clause 3: No person shall be disturbed in his or her private affairs without authority of law.

Section 13. [no arbitrary arrest]

    Clause 1: No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention, deportation, or exile.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 9:] No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

    Clause 2: No person shall be held to answer for a felony, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment V:] No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

    Clause 3: Witnesses may not be unreasonably detained.

Section 14. [right to bail]

    Clause 1: Excessive bail shall not be required.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment VIII:] Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

    Clause 2: A person may be released on his or her own recognizance in the court’s discretion.

Section 15. [presumed innocence]

    Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he or she has had all the guarantees necessary for his or her defence.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I1, Paragraph 1:] Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

Section 16. [habeas corpus]

    The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 2:] The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

Section 17. [right to public trial by jury]

    Clause 1: Justice in all cases shall be administered openly, and without unnecessary delay.

    Clause 2: Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his or her rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him or her.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I0:] Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

    Clause 3: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him or her; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his or her favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his or her defense.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article III, Section 2, Clause 3:] The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment VI:] In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

    Clause 4: No person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against him or herself.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment V:] No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

    Clause 5: In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the Nation of Pacifica, than according to the rules of the common law.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment VII:] In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

    Clause 6: No person shall be deprived of liberty or property, without due process of law.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment V:] No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Section 18. [limits on punishments]

    Clause 1: Excessive fines shall not be imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment VIII:] Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

    Clause 2: The death penalty shall not exist.

    Clause 3: No conviction shall work corruption of blood, nor forfeiture of estate.

    Clause 4: A person may not be imprisoned in a civil action for debt or tort, or in peacetime for a militia fine.

    Clause 5: There shall be no imprisonment for debt, except in cases of absconding debtors.

Section 19. [double jeopardy]

    No person shall be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of imprisonment, fine, or punishment.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment V:] No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Section 20. [ex post facto]

    Clause 1: No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Article I, Section 9, Clause 3:] No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

    Clause 2: No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I1, Paragraph 2:] No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Section 21. [no special privileges]

    Clause 1: Neither Congress nor any state shall make any law granting irrevocably any privilege, franchise or immunity.

    Clause 2: No law shall be passed granting to any citizen or class of citizens privileges or immunities which upon the same terms shall not equally belong to all citizens.

Section 21. [freedom of movement]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state and the Nation of Pacific as a whole.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I3, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.

    Clause 2: Everyone has the right to leave and to return to the Nation of Pacifica.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I3, Paragraph 2:] Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

    Clause 3: The government shall not impede the free flow of immigration or emigration, except for clear danger to Pacifican society.

Section 22. [right to asylum]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy asylum from persecution.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I4, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.

    Clause 2: This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of international law.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I4, Paragraph 2:] This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Section 23. [citizenship]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to a nationality.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I5, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to a nationality.

    Clause 2: No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his or her nationality nor denied the right to change his or her nationality.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I5, Paragraph 2:] No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

    Clause 3: All persons born or naturalized in the Nation of Pacifica or its member states or born of a citizen of the Nation of Pacifica is a citizen of the Nation of Pacifica and of the state wherein they reside.

    Clause 4: Every citizen of a member state at the time of the admittance of the state into the Union is a cittizen of the Nation of Pacifica.

    Clause 5: No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the Nation of Pacifica.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment IV, Section 2, Clause 1:] The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

Section 24. [participation in government]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to take part in the government of Pacifica, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 21, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.

    Clause 2: Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in the Nation of Pacifica within the limitations set forth in this Constitution.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 21, Paragraph 2:] Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.

Section 25. [right to vote]

    Clause 1: The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 21, Paragraph 3:] The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

    Clause 2: The right of citizens of the Nation of Pacifica, who are 13 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the Nation of Pacifica or any state on account of age.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XXVI, Section 1:] The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XXVI, Section 2:] The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Clause 3: The right of citizens of the Nation of Pacifica to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for any elected executive officer, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the Nation of Pacifica or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XXIV, Section 1:] The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XXIV, Section 2:] The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Clause 4: The right of citizens to vote may not be denied or abridged by the Nation of Pacifica or any state on account of race, color, previous condition of servitude, sex, gender, sexual orientation, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, ancestry, disability, property, or other status.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XIV, Section 2:] Representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XV, Section 1:] The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XV, Section 2:] The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XIX, Clause 1:] The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.
    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment XIX, Clause 2:] Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Clause 5: The right of citizens to vote may not be denied or abridged by the Nation of Pacifica or any state.

Section 26. [right of control of own body]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to control of his or her own body.

    Clause 2: Everyone has the right to make decisions regarding his or her own medical care, including the termination of medical care.

    Clause 3: Everyone has the right to self-medication.

    Clause 4: Everyone has the right to use birth control. Every woman has the right to have an abortion and the right to refuse an abortion.

    Clause 5: Everyone has the right to participate in consentual sexual relations with others who are 13 or older.

Section 27. [right of well-being]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of him or herself and of his or her family, including food, clothing, housing, medical care, and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age, or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his or her control.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.

    Clause 2: All persons are entitled to full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities, privileges, or services in all business establishments of every kind whatsoever no matter what their sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, colour, language, religion, creed, political or other opinion, previous condition of servitude, medical condition, disability, birth, ancestry, national origin, ethnic origin, or any arbitrary reason.

Section 28. [right to marriage]

    Clause 1: Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality, or religion, have the right to marry in any combination and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage, and at its dissolution.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I6, Paragraph 1:] Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.

    Clause 2: Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I6, Paragraph 2:] Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.

    Clause 3: The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the Nation of Pacifica.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I6, Paragraph 3:] The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

Section 29. [motherhood and children]

    Clause 1: Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25, Paragraph 2:] Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

    Clause 2: Children may not be separated from their families against the will of the parent or guardian entitled to bring them up, except by due process of law as the result of a failing or act by the parent or guardian that threatens the health, safety, or well-being of the child.

Section 30. [right to education]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to education. Public education shall be free. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit./p>

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 26, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

    Clause 2: Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial, or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the Nation of Pacifica for the maintenance of civilization, prosperity, and peace.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 26, Paragraph 2:] Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

    Clause 3: Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 26, Paragraph 3:] Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

    Clause 4: The right to establish private or religious schools is guaranteed. Parents shall have the right to decide whether their children receive religious instruction.

Section 31. [social security]

    Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of the Nation of Pacifica, of the economic, social, and cultural rights indispensable for his or her dignity and the free development of his or her personality.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 22:] Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

Section 32. [right to work]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work, and to protection against unemployment.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 23, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.

    Clause 2: Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 23, Paragraph 2:] Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.

    Clause 3: A person may not be disqualified from entering or pursuing a business, profession, vocation, or employment because of sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, colour, language, religion, creed, political or other opinion, previous condition of servitude, disability, birth, ancestry, national origin, or ethnic origin, or any arbitrary reason.

    Clause 4: No business establishment of any kind whatsoever shall discriminate against, boycott or blacklist, or refuse to buy from, contract with, sell to, or trade with any person because of the sex, gender, sexual orientation, race, colour, language, religion, creed, political or other opinion, previous condition of servitude, medical condition, disability, birth, ancestry, national origin, or ethnic origin of the person or of the person’s partners, members, stockholders, directors, officers, managers, superintendents, agents, employees, business associates, suppliers, or customers, because the person is perceived to have one or more of those characteristics, or because the person is associated with a person who has, or is perceived to have, any of those characteristics.

    Clause 5: Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for him or herself and his or her family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 23, Paragraph 3:] Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.

    Clause 6: Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his or her interests.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 23, Paragraph 4:] Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

Section 33. [right to rest and leisure]

    Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 24:] Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Section 34. [arts and sciences]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts, and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 27, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.

    Clause 2: Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary, or artistic production of which he or she is the author.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 27, Paragraph 2:] Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

Section 35. [property rights]

    Clause 1: Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I7, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.

    Clause 2: No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his or her property.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I7, Paragraph 2:] No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

    Clause 3: Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment V:] No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Section 36. [military service]

    Clause 1: No one may be compelled against his or her conscience to render war service involving the use of arms.

    Clause 2: The government is forbidden to hold a draft or registration for a draft except during a declared war.

Section 37. [right to bear arms]

    The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment II:] A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Section 38. [limits on soldiers]

    Clause 1: No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment III:] No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

    Clause 2: The military is forbidden from civilian police operations without a declaration of marttial law.

Section 39. [non-enumerated rights]

    Clause 1: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment IX:] The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

    Clause 2: The powers not delegated to the Nation of Pacifica by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

    [Constitution of the United States of America, Amendment X:] The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

Section 40. [social order and power to enforce]

    Clause 1: Everyone is entitled to a social and national order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Constitution can be fully realized.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 28:] Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

    Clause 2: Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his or her personality is possible.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 29, Paragraph 1:] Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.

    Clause 3: In the exercise of his or her rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 29, Paragraph 2:] In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

    Clause 4: Congress shall have power and duty to enforce these rights by appropriate legislation.

other

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 29, Paragraph 3:] These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

    [United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 30:] Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

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